Very often, it is mixed causes that push people on the road to exile especially for the African population: poverty, conflicts, social and political difficulties, environmental problems,…
It is very difficult to know what the main cause of the decision to leave was. Moreover, the causes of migration are often intertwined: poverty results from conflicts and political and social crises…
Some leave for economic reasons. They are looking for better socio-economic opportunities and try to work abroad, or they are facing extreme poverty in their country and see no other option than to leave. Discover in this article, 4 reasons that can push an African to migrate to the West.
Migrants are not so much attracted to Europe as they are driven out of their countries by an unbearable political climate. And this is not new. Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a significant increase in the number of young migrants leaving for Europe. They flee autocratic regimes where violence and persecution are numerous.
Over the last few years, this has been the case in Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Zimbabwe, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan and Somalia. It is said that one African out of five lives in a war situation. Add to this civil war situations such as in Libya, Syria, Iraq… Migrants come mainly from sub-Saharan Africa, from countries in permanent conflict such as Somalia or Eritrea.
2. The West and its economic mirage
A study by the INED (National Institute of Demographic Studies) has drawn up a portrait of the candidates for departure. The migrants are mostly young adults, often among the most educated in their country, and they have learned to draw the contours of their destination countries. Fleeing a country where the economic situation is frozen, they try their luck in France and other Western countries.
African countries are going through repeated crises aggravated by climatic and sanitary conditions that are sometimes extreme, as demonstrated by the Ebola and AIDS epidemics. In addition to economic and social inequalities, there is misery, precariousness and natural disasters due to global warming.
4. The environment (World Organization for Migration)
The environment has always had a major effect on migration, leading people to flee natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes or earthquakes. Climate change is expected to increase extreme weather events, leading to increased displacement.
According to the Global Organization for Migration (IOM): “Environmental migrants are people or groups of people who, mainly for reasons related to sudden or gradual environmental change adversely affecting their lives or living conditions, are forced to leave their usual home or leave it on their own initiative, either temporarily or permanently, and who, as a result, move within or outside their country.
It is difficult to give an accurate estimate of the number of environmental migrants in the world since factors such as population growth, poverty, governance, security and conflict also have an impact on the flow of people. Estimates range from 25 million to 1 billion by 2050.
5. Other factors
Some people, such as the Somalis, do so to escape poverty and get a second chance elsewhere. However, not all migrants do so. Some leave their country for professional reasons, as part of their work or studies. There are also personal reasons for immigration, such as joining someone they love or simply because they want to discover another country.